Hand crafted in València, Spain, Darimo Carbon offers some of the lightest, most refined cockpit components out there. With the addition of the T2 Set Back seatpost, Darimo also provide an elegant solution to drop weight on the road too. Plus, a new 4g clamp keeps a seatpost up with the least possible material. And all of it is made-to-order, so pick the finish you want, open your wallet, and shed some grams.Darimo T2 SB ultralight setback carbon seatpostMost ultralight seatpost designs rely on a straight carbon tube, so getting the 25mm offset needed for most road bike fits meant a compromise in design, or even just looks. Darimo wanted to continue the clean, simple aesthetic of their other components, so they developed the molds to make a tubular carbon setback post, with a curve to the upper tube.The body of the T2 SB post is constructed of an asymmetric (front to back) layup mixing layers of unidirectional (UD) & bidirectional (mostly 3K weave) carbon fabrics to keep weight to a minimum, while retaining off-road-ready strength.Molding the clamping hardware into the upper part of the tube, using a carbon rail cradle, 7075 alloy clamping bars & grade 5 titanium bolts certainly help keep weight down. This full length 31.6 x 400mm post weighed in at just 118.12g. Darimo was actually wondering why it was so heavy, then realized that the two wooden dowels are 2g a piece, bringing it back under the claimed 115g.Of course if you need lighter, Darimo is happy to build the 330€ seatpost to order, and will make it to custom length just for your bike.The clamping hardware of the T2 SB is rather unique, in that the front ti bolt has tiny holes drilled crossways in it. Once you mount your saddle (round or 7×9 rails) you insert a tiny allen key that Darimo supplies (0.9mm) which allows you to adjust the angle of the saddle in place. Then you tighten the rear bolt only with a regular tool to clamp the saddle in position.The T2 SB post is available in 25.4, 27.2, 30.9 & 31.6mm diameters and comes in 250-400mm lengths standard, although you can have it shortened as much as you want or custom even up to 700mm long.Like all of their carbon components, the T2 SB seatpost is available in four finish combinations – matte or gloss, with either a top layer of UD or 3K weave carbon. Because of the way Darimo builds the posts, UD is a bit heavier, adding around 4g overall to this post. You can also get decals to match your bike in a few colors – red, white, orange, green, celeste, or black for example.The post is rated for road, cross & cross-country use, and has a rider weight limit of 90kg/198lb. But for around 15g they can make a post to suit heavier riders as well.Darimo ultralight 4g carbon seatpost clampThere isn’t much material to Darimo’s upcoming seatpost clamp/collar, but it still embodies a fair amount of tech to keep the weight so low. Using high modulus directional carbon fibers, Darimo wraps just a few layers of carbon around a couple of alloy elements that make up the threading and bolt guide.The result is a carbon seatpost clamp that weighs just 4g (it fluctuated between 4.02 – 4.04g as the wind blew across the scale) while still using a grade 5 titanium clamping bolt. Darimo says it has been tested significantly higher, but they recommend a max clamping force of 6Nm, which is higher than the 5Nm standard for most carbon frames. Full details as to pricing, availability & sizing are still to come, as this 35mm version has been the first fully developed and tested.Darimo MTB handlebar lightweight carbon flat barsThe Darimo flat mountain bike bar is another of their superlight offerings. For 190€ you get a cross-country ready flat bar with a mix of UD & bidirectional 3K layers like the seatposts that yields some crazy low weights – like 98g for a 740mm bar.The Darimmo MTB bar is customizable as well. It can be had in either a 6° or 9° bend with no rise, and can be made up to 800mm wide, or as short as you need. Each bar gets a width-specific layup with reinforced ends to protect against regular crashes/wipeouts and reinforced brake/shifter clamping zones, not simply cut to size.The MTB handle bar is not made for gravity riding, and is not to be used with bar ends. The 31.8mm bar come in teh four standard finishes (from top to bottom above – matte UD, gloss UD, matte 3K, gloss 3K) and with decal color customization. The bar is again weight limited to a 90kg/198lb rider, but again Darimo can custom make a bar about 25g more for heavier riders.Darimo T1 original ultralight no-offset carbon seatpostThe T1 was Darimo’s first straight, zero-offset carbon seatpost brought to market back in 2016. With a standard weight of only 94g for an oversized 31.6mm post in a full 400mm length, they only get lighter from there.The 280€ T1 seatpost combines a straight carbon shaft, carbon saddle rail cradle, and carbon upper rail clamps with a couple of titanium bolts and aluminum barrel nuts. We’ve seen a short 250mm posts on the scale under 80g even. All the same details apply as with the new setback post, if you are looking to shed some weight off the road, gravel, cross, or XC bike.Darimo.eu
Vermont Business Magazine The Vermont National Guard’s 158th Fighter Wing has been tasked with a short-notice mobilization, according to a statement released Tuesday by Major General Steven Cray. Over the next few weeks, several hundred Airmen and equipment will depart in order to support the US Central Command’s Area of Responsibility, encompassing Northeast Africa, the Middle East, to Central and South Asia. Cray, the adjutant general, Vermont National Guard, thanked the families and employers of the VT Air National Guard for their unwavering support and commitment to their service.General Cray with Governor Shumlin and Senator Leahy in December 2013. VBM photo.“I am extremely proud of the Wing leadership and our Airmen who have stepped up for a mission they are trained to do,” said Cray. “It is a testament to the professionalism and dedication of our Airmen that the Department of Defense has asked the Vermont National Guard to fill an open requirement by US Central Command to bring the fight to our adversaries.”This deployment is in addition to the nearly 100 Soldiers and Airmen that the Vermont National Guard currently has deployed around the world.”Governor Peter Shumlin, Senators Patrick Leahy (D-Vermont) and Bernie Sanders (I-Vermont) and Congressman Peter Welch issued the following statements related to the announced deployment of the 158th Fighter Wing to the Central Command Area of Operations. Leahy, co-chair of the Senate National Guard Caucus said: “The brave men and women of the Vermont Air National Guard once again are answering the call. Our country knows that when you call in the Green Mountain Boys, you’re calling in the best. Their outstanding reputation has been earned through skill and sacrifice. Our pride in them is matched by our gratitude to them, their families, their employers and their communities. Marcelle and I continue to be humbled by their tireless devotion to Vermont and the nation. We are so proud of all that the Air Guard does, and we are behind them throughout this process.Leahy continued: “The stresses that deployments place on Guard families are many, and they are constant. It is important that we come together as a state to support not only our fellow Vermonters serving overseas, but everyone affected by their departure. The burden of separation falls on loved ones and employers, and it is so important that their sacrifices and contributions do not go unnoticed or unappreciated. Marcelle and I will have the men and women of the Vermont Air National Guard and their families in our thoughts and prayers throughout the coming months.”US Senator Bernie Sanders (I-Vermont) said: “The Vermont Air Guard has been recognized for its high degree of training and readiness. As is the case with any deployment, my thoughts are with the service members being sent overseas and their families. In Vermont, I am confident that we will all do everything we can to support those families in their time of need, as we look forward to the safe and speedy return of the Guard members.”Governor Peter Shumlin issued the following statement: “The brave men and women of the Vermont National Guard are truly Vermont’s finest. Time and again, they have shown incredible effectiveness and resolve when answering the call of their state and nation. As their Governor, I take immense pride in their ability and professionalism. I know this is a difficult time for those who will be deployed. On behalf of all Vermonters, I want to extend my gratitude to these hard working men and women and their families. They make us proud every day, and we are grateful for their service.” Representative Peter Welch (D-Vermont) said: “The brave men and women of the Vermont Air Guard have my full support for a successful mission and a safe and speedy return home. This is a particularly tough time of year for Guard members to leave their families, jobs and communities. As we have in the past, I know that all Vermonters will join together to support those being deployed as well as the families they leave behind. The Vermont Air Guard truly represents the best of Vermont. I am humbled by their service and thankful for their sacrifice.”Source: (TUESDAY, Nov. 23, 2016) — VTANG
Becky Hanf of Mission Fresh Fashion.For Ray and Becky Hanf, owners of Mission Fresh Fashion, getting involved with Small Business Saturday is a no-brainer.“We saw a 350 percent increase in business after Small Business Saturday started,” Becky said. “It was a game changer for us. It was the only thing that got consumers out of the mall and supporting small business.”And American Express, the national sponsor of the push to encourage shoppers to visit the retail little guys, makes it attractive. The credit card giant sends “Shop Small” tote bags and advertising materials to participating businesses, and card-holders who sign up get double reward points.When the Small Business Saturday response to the shopping frenzy of Black Friday began several years ago, participating consumers got a $25 credit on their AMEX card. That proved a bit expensive though and was discontinued after three years, Becky said.Business dropped off a bit last year, but was still much healthier than before the promotion started. Now the double reward point incentive has replaced the credit, and the promotion extends throughout the holiday season until Dec. 31.It’s a great boon for Mission Fresh Fashion, which the couple founded in 1998. It’s a classic mom-and-pop business, there are no other employees. Early on, they carried Fresh Produce Sportswear, a clothing company started by friends in 1984.For awhile, the store sold both clothing and accessories, as well as actual food produce.“Fresh produce, both wearable and edible, that how we started,” Becky said.The retailer has been at its current address, 6102 Johnson Dr., since 2010. Other Johnson Drive retailers that have signed on so far to Small Business Saturday are Lulu’s Boutique and SugaRae’s Children’s Boutique although more are expected.
Raising Cane’s is seeking the Lenexa planning commission’s approval to build a restaurant at 12056 W. 95th St., where Winstead’s is located.Raising Cane’s is apparently looking at opening a restaurant in Lenexa — and its plans raise questions about the future of the Winstead’s near Oak Park Mall.Lenexa received a final project plan Dec. 31 from the fast-food chain specializing in chicken fingers. Beccy Yocham, community development director, said the Lenexa planning commission will consider the final project plan in its Feb. 4 meeting.The application submitted by Raising Cane’s lists 12056 W. 95th St. — the current location of Winstead’s — as the chicken-finger restaurant’s possible new location.If the planning commission approves the final project plan, then Raising Cane’s can apply for a building permit to develop the site for Raising Cane’s, Yocham added.The property is owned by G&I VIII Oak Park East LLC with a main address in New York City.Photo via Raising Cane’s.Russell Ford, senior vice president of marketing for Champion Management LLC, which represents Raising Cane’s, said he was unable to comment on the specifics of the final project plan.“Raising Cane’s is continuously evaluating opportunities to grow restaurants all over the world, and especially in Kansas and Missouri,” Ford said in a statement. “Many factors go into our decisions, and ever-changing market conditions can affect planned locations and launch dates. We will make a public announcement if and when an official expansion decision has been made.”Haddad Restaurant Group, the owner of Winstead’s, did not respond to multiple requests for comment.In the past few years, Winstead’s has closed multiple area restaurants, including one in Merriam and another in downtown Overland Park. If the Lenexa location closes, only one Winstead’s location will remain within the I-435 loop, at Roe Avenue and I-435 in Leawood.However, Winstead’s head David Haddad has indicated that the company has aggressive expansion plans for the coming years.Other nearby Raising Cane’s locations are at 10704 Shawnee Mission Parkway in Shawnee and 7501 W. 135th St. in Overland Park.
The 161-unit apartment complex planned for the former Mission Bowl site at 5399 Martway Street is projected to be completed by August 2023, city staff said Wednesday during a finance and administration committee meeting. But at least one councilmember advocated for a strict construction timeline.Councilmember Sollie Flora asked if language locking in the developer to the timeline was as strong as it could be to ensure once construction starts, there’s continued forward progress. Flora said there’s been other redevelopment projects in the city that have had completion issues, seemingly referring to the Mission Gateway site.City Administrator Laura Smith said, in response to Flora’s comments, that the August, 2023, finish date is a fairly tight time frame. She agreed with Flora’s point that there are benefits to stricter time constraints.“I understand we’ve had a different experience over multiple years with some of our other projects,” Smith said. “I think there are opportunities, if you meet that schedule, a potential event would trigger an event of default. You would have the opportunity there to terminate, potentially, the agreement in its entirety.”Mission’s finance and administration committee discussed three items related to the proposed apartment complex, including a draft redevelopment agreement and the ordinance splitting the Rock Creek tax increment financing district. Smith said there are sections of the redevelopment agreement city staff intends to work on — such as the sustainability piece that was left blank.City Administrator Laura Smith said while the August 2023 finish date is a fairly tight timeframe, there are benefits to requiring a time constraint. File photo.Smith said a more comprehensive draft will be sent to the city council for review, and can be discussed on Dec. 9 when the city’s committees meet for a second time this month.Councilmember Trent Boultinghouse asked if progress had been made on an issue he previously brought up related to affordable housing: what happens to low-income tenants who sign up in year 19 of the 20-year affordable housing period. Pete Heaven, the city’s land use attorney, said he will be sure to address Boultinghouse’s concern in the next draft.The finance committee will reconvene on Dec. 9 to further discuss the Mission Bowl redevelopment agreement. Following the committee meeting, the city council will meet on Dec. 16 for two public hearings related to the proposed project.
In Memoriam Pedro L. Abreu, Miami Admitted 2005; Died July 17, 2007 Harry J. Albers, Ft. Lauderdale Admitted 1964; Died October 1, 1990 Hilary U. Albury, North Naples Park Admitted 1947; Died January 15, 1999 T. G. Alderson, Beech Mountain, NC Admitted 1953; Died July 27, 2000 Sidney B. Alexander, West Palm Beach Admitted 1978; Died November 23, 1997 Marian McNeill Alves, Tallahassee Admitted 1984; Died November 11, 2007 John David Roy Atchison, Pensacola Admitted 1984; Died October 5, 2007 Michael Aaron Bienstock, Miami Beach Admitted 1973; Died July 31, 2007 Hugo Lafayette Black III, Miami Admitted 1995; Died September 29, 2007 David Bolton, Coral Gables Admitted 1965; Died January 7, 2004 Austin O. Bonidy, St. Cloud Admitted 1957; Died December 28, 2006 Samuel Buvinger Brahm, St. Petersburg Admitted 1957; Died January 31, 2007 Ruth Diane Burlingham, Deland Admitted 1963; Died March 28, 2007 John Richard Farrell, Miami Admitted 1964; Died October 18, 2007 James Alfred Garland, Orlando Admitted 1965; Died November 16, 2006 Howard Gittis, New York, NY Admitted 1976; Died September 17, 2007 Steven Gerald Glickstein, Tamarac Admitted 1982; Died September 16, 2007 Eric Steven Glatter, Boca Raton Admitted 1989; Died November 4, 2007 Charles Golin, Lancaster, PA Admitted 1977; Died June 14, 2007 Albert Alton Gordon, Coral Gables Admitted 1969; Died April 2, 2006 Raymond A. Graham, Sarasota Admitted 1964; Died March 8, 2005 Jordan A. Greene, Stuart Admitted 1970; Died October 13, 2006 William C. Grimes, Bradenton Admitted 1941; Died February 13, 2007 Jennifer Roof Guilford, Coral Gables Admitted 1991; Died October 21, 2002 Rodney Norman Houghton, Vero Beach Admitted 1984; Died October 14, 2007 John Garrett Immer, Miami Admitted 1965; Died March 9, 2007 J. Philip Landsman, Flagler Beach Admitted 1982; Died November 28, 2006 Lawrence L. Lavalle, Boca Raton Admitted 1967; Died October 14, 2007 Rhoderick Benjamin MacLeod, Sarasota Admitted 1965; Died July 21, 2006 Jesse J. McCrary, Jr., Miami Admitted 1966; Died October 29, 2007 Lee A. Mills, Houston, TX Admitted 1974; Died March 18, 2006 Frederic Rowland Mindlin, Stamford, CT Admitted 1976; Died September 3, 2007 Kenneth M. Myers, Miami Admitted 1957; Died July 29, 2007 John Lydon O’Brien, Deerfield Beach Admitted 1960; Died October 1, 2007 A. C. Paoli, Hollywood Admitted 1947; Died June 26, 2007 Larry G. Parks, Pensacola Admitted 1977; Died November 8, 2007 James Carl Pilkey, Ft. Lauderdale Admitted 1980; Died March 16, 2007 Lanette M. Price, Casselberry Admitted 1990; Died May 5, 2007 Andrew Louis Richard, Jr., Ft. Lauderdale Admitted 1958; Died February 27, 2007 Harry Michael Ross, Miami Admitted 1953; Died April 10, 2007 Jeff Edward Rubin, Miami Admitted 1989; Died November 16, 2007 Robert L. Rubin, Ft. Lauderdale Admitted 1976; Died August 12, 2007 Thomas Ruffin III, Boca Raton Admitted 1984; Died June 21, 2007 Bruce David Schwartz, Coral Springs Admitted 1993; Died October 14, 2007 Frank M. Scruby, Orange Park Admitted 1957; Died November 8, 2007 Allen E. Sherrill,Franklin, TN Admitted 1948; Died February 4, 2007 Jerome Howard Shevin, Coral Gables Admitted 1966; Died September 22, 2007 Douglass B. Shivers, Tallahassee Admitted 1948; Died November 11, 2007 Philip H. Shore, East Brunswick, NJ Admitted 1968; Died March 15, 2007 Norman Somberg, Miami Admitted 1951; Died October 7, 2007 Robert G. Sommer, Ocala Admitted 1950; Died August 25, 2007 William Joseph Skarbek, Jr., Cape Coral Admitted 1966; Died October 13, 2007 Pamela K. Speer, Palm Beach Gardens Admitted 1982; Died March 30, 2007 Mark T. Starr, Blue Bell, PA Admitted 1979; Died March 17, 2007 Fred Henry Steffey, Ponte Vedra Beach Admitted 1962; Died August 28, 2007 William Kenneth Stevens, Naples Admitted 1977; Died October 28, 2007 Keith K. Stewart, Hollywood Admitted 1999; Died March 28, 2007 Gilchrist B. Stockton, Jr., Green Cove Springs Admitted 1955; Died December 28, 2006 Charnelle H. Summers, Jr., Key Largo Admitted 1957; Died December 1, 2002 Richard John Tobin, Stamford, CT Admitted 1993; Died September 1, 2006 Tricia Bohnenberger Valles, Tampa Admitted 1998; Died September 5, 2007 Eric C. van Enter, Miami Admitted 1945; Died October 23, 1998 Blakeley Robinson Waite, Atlantic Beach Admitted 1975; Died July 27, 2007 Edward James Waldron, Coral Gables Admitted 1969; Died August 25, 2007 Edgar Calvin Watkins, Jr., Plant City Admitted 1973; Died September 16, 2007 Ira H. Wexner, Floral Park, NY Admitted 1953; Died October 10, 2007 Allison Ann Wheeler, Oklahoma City, OK Admitted 1989; Died December 28, 2005 Willard Randall Winter, Johnson City, TN Admitted 1971; Died January 11, 2003 Bertram J. Wolf, Highland Park, IL Admitted 1975; Died October 28, 2007 James Kirk Wood, Honolulu, HI Admitted 1972; Died February 23, 2007 Edward T. Wright, Clearwater Beach Admitted 1975; died May 30, 2007 Thomas Joseph Yeager, West Palm Beach Admitted 1965; Died May 5, 2007 In Memoriam January 15, 2008 In Memoriam
Credit unions need to work together to not only raise awareness, but to convince consumers to consider using credit unions to meet their financial needs.That involves communicating the value of what it means to be a credit union member, says Jim Nussle, CUNA president/CEO.Enter the Awareness Initiative, a research-based effort led by CUNA to raise consideration of credit unions as the best financial partner for American consumers.“It’s not about your credit union’s individual brand,” says Nussle, who addressed more than 300 credit union leaders at the Wisconsin Credit Union League’s State Government Affairs Conference Thursday in Madison, Wis. “The words ‘credit union’ need better definition.“Even though I’ve been calling this an awareness campaign, it’s more of a consideration campaign,” Nussle adds. ShareShareSharePrintMailGooglePinterestDiggRedditStumbleuponDeliciousBufferTumblr continue reading »
15SHARESShareShareSharePrintMailGooglePinterestDiggRedditStumbleuponDeliciousBufferTumblr As a performance strategist, I talk with credit unions every day about the experience they want their members to have. What I hear is eye opening. I was recently part of a discussion group with credit union vice presidents. Five out of the 120 people indicated that their credit union is focusing on the member experience. Wait. Five out of 120? And this is at a time when futurists are predicting the customer experience is the top opportunity for businesses to differentiate themselves and grow. It was interesting to hear that these five credit unions had completely different ideas of where to focus their member experience efforts, whether it was information technology, service delivery or just providing something new. I also found that there’s confusion between great service and the member experience. In short, great service focuses on the transaction, it’s reactive to what’s asked for. It’s done with a smile, good manners, and you call your members by name.On the other hand, the member experience is an engaging conversation that’s proactive, personal and memorable. It’s a conversation that brings value to the member’s life. My research and experience indicate that to deliver a noteworthy member experience we must focus on six key factors:Define the member experience. Is the member completing a loan application, opening a new account, obtaining a mortgage or trying to resolve a problem? Create user-friendly systems and processes. This allows your staff to easily navigate between platforms and processes are succinct. It avoids unnecessary steps.Choose staff who engage with members. These employees have relationship building and conversational soft skills. Look for individuals who:Demonstrate empathyListen to comprehendCommunicate in a clear and concise mannerProblem solve with a sense of urgency and show they’re knowledgeable Empower managers and staff to “do the right thing” in a timely manner.Take ownership of positive member experience. The employee is willing to take personal responsibility for outcomes, not only for the members, but also coworkers. Offer products that are market worthy and easy for your members to use.I worked with a group of executives at a credit union to journey map the member experience of their loan processes. The number of steps and hoops the member had to jump through was surprising and shocking to the group. The executives didn’t realize the process was so hard and complicated and believed it had an impact on the credit union’s inability to reach goals. Going through the experience allowed the executives to see that the compliance officer and lending team had put several procedures in place to avoid risk and make their lives easier, but they didn’t consider how it would impact the member experience. In cases like this, consider these three questions:Do you have a clear member experience, vision and strategy?Do you know what your current member experience looks and feels like?Do you have a culture focused on the six key factors listed above?This isn’t about being the best you can be. It’s about being better than you’ve ever been because this isn’t a fad, it’s the future.Authored by: Jayne Hitman is a performance strategist and business development manager for CUNA Creating Member Loyalty™ (CML). To learn more about member experience strategy or CML, contact Jayne at email@example.com or 608-231-4354.
Share on Facebook Share on Twitter Share Pinterest LinkedIn Email A new study led by associate professor Rebecca Ready in the department of psychological and brain sciences at the University of Massachusetts Amherst has found that older adults have different, more positive responses than young adults about feelings such as serenity, sadness and loneliness.Ready calls the findings “highly clinically significant” because the information could help caregivers, psychotherapists and workers at assisted living facilities, for example, better understand the emotions of older people in their care, which could lead to improved treatment and quality of interactions. Findings appear in the current online issue of Aging and Mental Health.She says, “Older adults report feeling more serenity than younger persons. They also have a richer concept of what it means to feel serene than younger persons.” In a word grouping task, older adults associated more positive emotional terms with serene, such as cheerful, happy and joyful, than did younger people. The authors speculate that “this broader conception of serene” is associated with the fact that older adults report more calming positive emotions than younger people. She adds, “We were surprised to find that younger adults associated more self-deprecating terms with feeling sad and lonely, such as being ashamed or disgusted with themselves, than older persons.” When grouping other emotion words with sadness, older adults included words such as droopy and sheepish, while younger adults included more self-deprecating terms with the word, such as dissatisfied with self, ashamed, angry and disgusted with self. A similar pattern was observed for lonely.For this study, Ready and her graduate student Gennarina Santorelli recruited 32 older adults ages 60 to 92, and 111 younger adults ages 18 to 32, and asked them to judge 70 emotion terms on whether the words had a positive or negative connotation and if the words were activating or arousing. For example, excited is generally rated as a high activation word, while serene is associated with less activation. They then had participants group similar words together.Ready and colleagues found the word groupings were similar between older and younger persons for many words but they noted systematic differences for sadness, loneliness and, as noted above, serenity. They also found that older adults perceive emotion terms as most positive and more active than younger persons. Emotions overall may be more stimulating for older than younger persons.The older adults in this study reported fewer depressive symptoms than the younger participants. Controlling for age group differences in these symptoms, Ready says, “We gained a deeper appreciation of some relatively unknown benefits of aging, such as increased positive emotions and less shame associated with feeling sad or lonely.”As the percentage of older adults in the United States increases, Ready says, “It is imperative to determine how older adults define emotions differently than younger adults. These data ensure effective communication with older adults, accurate understanding of their emotion experiences, and appropriate access to psychological interventions.”
Share Share on Facebook Share on Twitter Researchers from Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam and Radboud University Nijmegen found proof that psychopathic individuals can feel fear, but have trouble in the automatic detection and responsivity to threat. For many decades fear has been put forth as a hallmark feature of psychopathy, the impairments in which would lead to bold risk-taking behavior.Sylco Hoppenbrouwers (VU Amsterdam), Erik Bulten and Inti Brazil (Radboud University) reviewed theoretical and empirical brain and behavioral data pertaining to fear and psychopathy and found that psychopathic individuals have trouble detecting threats.There was however little evidence that the conscious experience of fear was affected, indicating that the experience of fear may not be completely impaired in psychopathy. It’s the first study to provide empirical evidence that the automatic and conscious processes can be independently affected within one psychiatric disorder. LinkedIn Email Pinterest The results are published in Psychological Bulletin.In their systematic review and meta-analysis, Hoppenbrouwers, Bulten and Brazil reviewed the available evidence for the potential existence of the relationship between fear and psychopathy in adult individuals. Importantly, their definition of fear was based on state of the art knowledge of the neurobiological and cognitive underpinnings of this emotion. They used this knowledge to generate a model that separates brain mechanisms involved in automatic detection and responding to threats from those involved in the conscious experience of fear as an emotion.Using this model as reference, they first performed a conceptual analysis of the work of earlier theorists, going back to as early as 1806. They found that only one theorist incorporated the construct of fear into an etiological model of psychopathy.Fear isn’t absent in psychopathic individualsThe evidence for impairments in brain areas involved in the experience of fear was less consistent than is often assumed, indicating that the experience of fear may not be completely impaired in psychopathy. The researchers then conclusively showed that psychopathic individuals have trouble in the automatic detection and responsivity to threat but may in fact feel fear, providing direct empirical support for the claim that the conscious experience of fear may not be impaired in these individuals.An additional meta-analysis examining the five other basic emotions found that there may also be impairments in the experience of happiness and anger, but the lack of consistency in the current literature precluded the generation of strong claims.New model also applies to mood and anxiety disordersThe research by Hoppenbrouwers, Bulten and Brazil is the first to provide empirical evidence that the automatic and conscious processes can be separated. Furthermore, the proposed model not only applies to psychopathy, but can also be used to further increase conceptual precision and generate new hypotheses for research on mood and anxiety disorders.Inti Brazil: “While psychopathic individuals may suffer from a dysfunctional threat system, people with posttraumatic stress disorder may have a hyperactive threat system, which later leads to them feeling fearful.” Sylco Hoppenbrouwers agrees: “As a consequence of our research, some very influential theories that assign prominent roles to fearlessness in the aetiology of psychopathy will need to be reconsidered and made consistent with current neuroscientific evidence. Such re-evaluations of key concepts will lead to increased precision in research and clinical practice which should ultimately pave the way toward more targeted and more effective treatment interventions.”