24 June 2013 The government has launched a public consultation process to encourage South Africans to give their input on plans to improve policing in the country through a Green Paper on Policing. The Green Paper sets out the broad policy thrust for the South African Police Service (SAPS) over the medium to long term, providing a framework for building a professional, accountable, transparent and responsive police service. During a quarterly meeting between Police Minister Nathi Mthethwa and provincial MECs responsible for policing in Boksburg on Friday, a call was made to South Africans to contribute and share their views and suggestions on the kind of policing they want in future. Mthethwa said the policy had to position the police service to adapt and respond to a constantly evolving crime landscape while remaining steadfast in its commitment to democratic policing. “This policy document therefore articulates the Ministry of Police’s vision for policing for the future. This piece of legislation has far-reaching safety implications, hence the importance of a broader consultation process.” The meeting stressed that the Civilian Secretariat for Police would need to ensure that it reached the majority of South Africans as part of its consultative process, so that views from even the remotest and rural areas were included. The MECs were tasked to use their existing community structures, constituencies and stakeholder forums to get public discussions going. South Africans have until 7 July to make inputs on the Green Paper on Policing, which is available on www.gov.za and www.saps.gov.za. A copy can also be obtained from the Civilian Secretariat for Police by contacting them on 012 393 2519. Source: SAnews.gov.za
At some point in your retail loss prevention career, if you haven’t done so already, you will be called upon to help make procurement decisions on new technology, such as electronic article surveillance (EAS) or video surveillance. While you may be most interested in the features, functions, and benefits of the technologies, your CFO will be more interested in the oft-used cliché, “bang for the buck.” So, how do you calculate ROI in retail?This post explains the financial concepts required to conduct a cost vs. benefit analysis, as well as a full-fledged return-on-investment (ROI) analysis. It will also provide insight into the process by which your CFO decides the following key questions:What type of analysis (simple or complex) should be used?What are the costs and benefits associated with this project?How long will it take before the costs are recovered?Will the project turn a profit? If so, how much?How does the profitability of this project rank against all others?What Is ROI Analysis?Simply stated, an ROI analysis determines the amount and rate (percentage) of anticipated or earned profit, if any, from an investment. A pro forma analysis is conducted in the planning stages of a project using cost and benefits estimates. The idea is to calculate an expected or anticipated return based on well-reasoned assumptions. ROI analysis is also used after a project’s implementation in order to calculate the actual return and to see whether or not the investment met financial expectations.- Sponsor – There are basic and comprehensive analytical methods. The basic methods simply calculate a time horizon for cost recovery (payback) in months or years, or a simple return on investment percentage (what percentage of the cost will be, or has been, recovered). Payback ignores the concept of the time value of money, meaning a dollar that you have in your hands today is worth more than the promise or expectation that you will receive a dollar in the future. Payback also ignores any costs or benefits beyond the first year. Because of these limitations, we will not employ a payback calculation in this analysis.The more sophisticated and accurate calculations, often called discounted cash flow methods, try to encompass the following items and concepts:All fixed and variable costs and benefits, no matter when they occur,ROI measured against a prescribed time horizon, such as a five-year depreciation schedule,Taxes, opportunity costs, and the time value of money, andROI results compared to a benchmark or “hurdle” rate (a rate of return below which the project will be rejected).Net Present Value. Discounted cash flow analysis is a method of valuing a project using the concepts of the time value of money. All future cash flows (incoming [benefit] and outgoing [cost]) are estimated and discounted at a required rate of return to give their present value. The sum of all discounted cash flows covering the time horizon is the net present value (NPV). A zero NPV means the project repays the original investment and covers the required rate of return—essentially a breakeven. A positive NPV indicates a profit (over the required return), and a negative NPV indicates a loss. In capital budgeting, the discount rate used is called the “hurdle rate” and is usually equal to the incremental cost of capital. The ROI on a project must exceed the hurdle in order to be judged worthy of an investment. When choosing among a number of investments, the CFO looks for the highest NPV.Internal Rate of Return (IRR) is the rate promised by the project over its useful life. It is sometimes referred to as “yield on project.” The IRR is the discount rate that will cause the NPV of a project to be zero. Once the IRR has been calculated, it is compared to the company’s required (minimum acceptable) rate of return. If the IRR is equal to or greater than the required rate of return, then the project is acceptable. If not, it is rejected. Often, a retailer’s cost of capital is used as the required rate of return. The logic is that if a project cannot provide a return at least as large as the cost of the investment, then it is unprofitable.Both NPV and IRR are readily available formulas in spreadsheet programs. There is no need to calculate them by hand.Why Is ROI Analysis Important?First, an accurate return-on-investment analysis prohibits unprofitable decisions. A well-reasoned, thoroughly researched financial justification tends to inhibit emotional decisions, and promotes “buy-in” for the project, and helps the loss prevention department make a professional case to senior management for accepting and implementing new technology for retail stores.Quantifying Costs and BenefitsProper ROI analyses start with a thorough compilation of all costs and benefits that could possibly be associated with the proposed project. While each project may be different, the costs can be divided into three categories—investment, one-time preparation, and other.The main investment is the cost of any hardware or software licensing fees. These costs will most likely be depreciated (hardware) or amortized (software) over a fixed time horizon established in our generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP).One-time preparation costs include sales taxes, freight charges, and the cost of site preparation and installation. These costs are added to the total investment for depreciation/amortization purposes.Other costs include such things as the labor required to operate or manage the project, maintenance, IT expenses, or any other incidental expenses. These costs may be one-time or annual, fixed or variable. Generally, they are not included in the investment, but are “expensed,” meaning they are accounted for in full when they are incurred.A “hard” cost, such as the cost of the EAS tags or other retail theft prevention system, is objective and easily acknowledged and quantified. All hard costs and benefits should be included in the ROI analysis. “Soft” costs/benefits are those that are more subjective estimates rather than precise calculations. For example, an anticipated improvement in labor productivity may not be as easily acknowledged and quantified. The most accurate ROI analyses rely upon “hard” costs as exclusively as possible and only include “soft” costs where the circumstances can be clearly understood and agreed upon by the project participants.Measuring the Major BenefitsThe “R” in ROI means return. A return is a tangible benefit, most often measured over time, which offsets some or all of the project’s costs. Each project has its own list of potential benefits. The most common benefit types in projects that implement new technology for retail stores are:Reduction in inventory shortage,Labor savings,Additional sales, andProductivity improvementA reduction in inventory shortage is usually the largest and most important potential benefit from loss prevention investments. If you think about it, we are making investments in security programs with the intention that shortage will be reduced from current levels, or that the countermeasures will keep shortage from rising to unprofitable levels. Shortage reduction and control is loss prevention’s raison d’être. We must be able to accurately estimate the impact that the project will have, or has had on shortage.The shortage performance graph below plots the inventory shortage results in a retail apparel store that had experienced a significant increase in shoplifting. After installing EAS, the results were measured after the first year, and future results were estimated over the balance of a five-year time horizon (years +2 through +5). In this example, EAS is the only countermeasure that was used, so any change in shortage can be directly attributed to its deterrent qualities. The horizontal (X) axis measures time, in years, and the vertical (Y) axis measures shortage as a percentage of sales. Under this scenario, shortage had been rising and the crisis point (year 0) was reached when shortage reached 5 percent of sales. EAS was installed at the end that fiscal year (year 0) directly after the annual inventory was taken. At the end of the first fiscal year of EAS usage (year +1), shortage dropped by 50 percent to 2.5 percent of sales. Management assumed that shortage would remain at the lower level over the rest of the time horizon.The dollar value of the reduction in shortage over the five-year time horizon is the financial benefit that will be entered into ROI calculation for the project. Assume that the store’s annual sales are $1 million. Assume further that shortage would have stayed at its crisis point of 5 percent (dotted red line) had EAS not been installed. Without EAS, annual shortage would be $50,000. Since the EAS installation, annual shortage dropped to 2.5 percent ($25,000), and with proper management, would remain at that lower level over the subsequent four years. So, the financial benefit gained by the use of EAS is the difference (at cost) between the shortage at the crisis point before the installation (5 percent) and the average rate of shortage after the installation (2.5 percent)—a savings of $25,000 at retail per year.To arrive at the cost of shortage, we must multiply by the cost of goods sold (COGS), in this case 55 percent. By “costing out” the change in shortage, we are treating it (accounting-wise) the same as we treat the cost of the EAS equipment, making the results “apples to apples.” This calculation will be shown later in the real-world example.Additional sales may be generated in other ways. If an EAS investment reduces shortage by 50 percent, there will be more merchandise available for sale than there was before EAS was installed. Will some of these items be sold? Without a doubt. The questions are:Can the amount of incremental sales be accurately estimated?How are incremental sales valued in the ROI analysis?Thanks to the work of retailers and academic researchers, studies have shown that there is an inverse relationship between item-level shortage and sales. In other words, statistics show that when shortage in certain items decreases, sales in those items increase. The range of the sales increase is wide, and at this point this type of benefit has to be considered “semi-soft,” meaning that while there is empirical proof that incremental sales occur, the estimate is still subjective, unless the retailer has conducted its own study. For this reason, an estimate of the impact of incremental sales will not be used in the real-world example analysis below.Calculating the financial benefit of an incremental sale, however, is straightforward. Doing so requires an additional piece of information—the “gross margin” percentage of the items in question. Suppose the EAS project results in provable incremental sales of $50,000 per year at retail, and the gross margin percentage of those items is 19 percent. To calculate the gross margin impact of the incremental sales, multiply them by the gross margin percentage ($50,000 x 19% = $9,500). This gross margin impact is the financial benefit that would be included in the ROI analysis.Labor savings can be included when an investment in technology results in a reduction in labor hours. Labor savings is a “hard” benefit that is calculated by multiplying a wage rate by the number of hours saved in the project. Typically, if labor hours are reduced, then employee benefits are reduced, as well. Often called a “benefits component,” it is usually expressed as a percentage of the base wage rate. Ask your human resources department for the rate.If the benefit component rate is 18 percent, and the hourly base wage rate is $10.00, then the benefit component is $1.80 per hour, and the “fully burdened” wage rate is $10.00 + $1.80 = $11.80. If the investment saves 120 hours of labor per year, then the labor savings benefitin the ROI analysis is $11.80 x 120 or $1,416 per year.Productivity improvement comes in many forms, but is not easily quantified. Suppose that an investment in video surveillance equipment allowed loss prevention agents to apprehend 15 percent more shoplifters per year than previously. Suppose further that the average value of each bust was $75.00, at retail, in recovered merchandise, and the number of annual cases had been 80 per year. A 15 percent increase in productivity allows the agent to work about twelve more cases, and results in an additional recovery of $900 at retail per year. Multiplying the amount of the recovery by the COGS of the items (55 percent) provides a benefit of $495 to the ROI analysis.How Do You Calculate ROI in Retail? A Real-World ExampleThe following simple real-world example will supply the data necessary to explain the analytical concepts discussed above.Suppose the management of the apparel chain mentioned above is trying to decide between installing EAS or video surveillance in a high-shortage store. The choice is between a simple EAS pedestal system with plastic tags and detachers versus an array of video domes interconnected to a monitor/switcher/recorder…nothing fancy. Suppose that the chain already used both countermeasures, and EAS has been proven to reduce inventory shortage by 50 percent and video by 35 percent. Assume, as we did above, that the store’s shortage is 5 percent of sales, and annual sales will be $1 million per year for each of the five years. The COGS for the protected items is 55 percent. The various costs have been identified and quantified in the chart:Shortage Reduction Benefit Calculation. In the EAS example, management expects shortage to decrease by 50 percent from 5.0 to 2.5 percent of sales and remain at the reduced level for the five-year time horizon of the project. The annual sales for the store is $1 million and the COGS for the protected items is 55 percent, so the annual ROI benefit from the estimated reduction in shortage is $13,750 per year.In the video surveillance example, management expects shortage to decrease by 35 percent from 5.0 to 3.25 percent of sales and remain at the reduced level for the five-year time horizon of the project. The annual sales and COGS are the same, so the annual ROI benefit from the estimated reduction in shortage is $9,625 per year.Choosing the Most Profitable Investment. Let’s calculate NPV and IRR for the competing technologies in our real-world example to answer the CFO’s questions from the opening paragraph:Will either countermeasure be profitable?Which one is more profitable?How long will it take to recover the investment?EAS—The annual benefit (at cost) from shortage reduction using the EAS technology is $13,750. From that we must account for all of the costs, beginning with the initial investment in EAS system, tags, and detachers, a total of $9,200. One-time preparation costs are $1,250. Both of these items must be depreciated. Annual costs include tagging and tag removal labor ($4,800) and tag replacement ($100). In years two through five there is an additional expense of $200 for maintenance. In addition, the impact of taxes (39%) and the cost of capital (8%) must be included. The results of these calculations are:Video Surveillance—The annual benefit (at cost) from shortage reduction using video technology is $9,625. From that we must account for all of the costs, beginning with the initial investment of $3,000 in the video domes, monitors, switchers, and recording device. One-time preparation costs are $1,010. Both of these items must be depreciated. Annual costs include system management labor ($6,000). In years two through five there is an additional expense of $100 for maintenance. In addition, the impact of taxes (39%) and the cost of capital (8%) must be included. The results of these calculations are:The Verdict Is EAS. Both countermeasures are profitable because the NPV calculations are greater than zero. The IRR calculations suggest that both generate a significant return over and above the 8 percent cost of capital used as the discount rate. Note, however, that the NPV for EAS ($15,400) is almost triple that of video ($5,900), and the IRR for EAS (65.08%) is almost 10 percentage points higher than that of video (55.12%).Based on these metrics, EAS is the countermeasure of choice. There are a couple of reasons. First, the assumed shortage reduction for EAS (50%) exceeded that of video (35%). Second, the annual costs for video in years two through five are higher.This article was originally published in 2010 and was updated February 19, 2018. Stay UpdatedGet critical information for loss prevention professionals, security and retail management delivered right to your inbox. Sign up now
Facing demands for his dismissal, Indian Army Chief General V.K. Singh on Thursday said the leak of his letter to Prime Minister Manmohan Singh presenting a grim picture of the force’s defence preparedness should be treated as “high treason” and the source of leakage dealt with “ruthlessly”.The assertion by the General to trace the source of the leak came even as Defence sources said that Intelligence Bureau has been asked to inquire into leakage of the letter to the media.As tensions between him and the government escalated over the leak of his official letter to Prime Minister Manmohan Singh, Gen Singh hit back saying a “cynical approach” to tarnish his reputation should stop.In a brief statement released by Army Headquarters, Gen Singh, who is currently in Jammu and Kashmir, further said his official communication with the Prime Minister and Defence Minister A.K. Antony is “privileged” communication.”The leakage of the letter should be treated as high treason. Cynical approach to tarnish my reputation should stop. Sources of the leakage should be found and dealt with ruthlessly,” said Singh, who is due to retire on May 31.Singh’s leaked letter led to demands by political parties — Samajwadi Party, Janata Dal (United) and Rashtriya Janata Dal (RJD) — for his dismissal on Wednesday even as government and Opposition were agreed his concerns should not have come out in the open.There was a strong demand to launch a probe how the letter was leaked to the media. It was also felt that the Army chief should have first raised his concerns on the risk to the country’s security directly with the Defence Minister. The General was also accused of breach of discipline.The media leak of the letter came on top of an acrimony between the Army chief and the government since early this week over his media interview in which he had claimed that he was offered a bribe of Rs 14 crore by a retired Lt Gen for swinging a sub-standard defence deal.”I have made serious note of the observations. After consulting the prime minister and colleagues, we will take appropriate action,” Antony said in Rajya Sabha on Wednesday after members expressed serious concerns over issues of national security.advertisement
India in their first innings managed to score 465.Hello and welcome to the coverage from day four of the third Test between Australia and India in Melbourne.ScorecardAustralia (2nd innings):Stumps: Australia are leading by 326 runs at the end of day four’s play. Shaun Marsh’s unbeaten 62 really held the hosts’ innings together with the tailenders digging in. Will Australia declare at their overnight score? This Test also heading towards a interesting finish.71.6 overs: Maiden over from Umesh Yadav but Australia surely have put themselves in safe zone by taking a lead of 322 runs. Thanks to Shaun Marsh, who held Australia’s innings together. 68.1 overs: Six. Shaun Marsh goes after Ashwin and hits straight down the ground to bring up his half-century. Australia’s lead now past 300. Moreover, to make up for the lost time due to rain, play has been extended by 30 minutes.65.1 overs: Four. Johnson nails it straight down the ground. Touch short from Shami and Marsh slaps it straight. 61.2 overs: Four. Big inside edge runs down to fine leg. Marsh goes for the cut shot off Ishant but was lucky the ball missed the stumps. Australia lead by 285 runs.59.6 overs: Ishant Sharma has run in hard and bending his back, more importantly bowling in the right channel. Australia lead by 280 runs. 55.2 overs: Out. The ploy of bowling down the leg has worked for India as Umesh gets his second wicket by dismissing Brad Haddin for 13. The ball was sliding down the leg and Haddin flicks to get an edge to Dhoni. Australia six down. Snicko picked up some noise as the ball passed the bat, but nothing on HotSpot.advertisement53.5 overs: Four. Bad bowling from Umesh, full and wide. Marsh takes no half-measures and slashes hard. Australia lead by 262 runs.53.3 overs: Four. Full delivery from Umesh and Marsh drives it through extra-cover. Australia’s lead now past 250 with Shaun Marsh and Brad Haddin at the crease. Australia 189 for 5. Cloud cover now over MCG with India gunning to close out Australia at the earliest. Presently, Shaun Marsh and Brad Haddin at the crease. 45.3 overs: Out. Bad shot selection from Burns, chasing an away going delivery from Ishant Sharma. Burns goes for the cut and gets an outside edge to Dhoni behind the stumps. Ishant Sharma bowls yet another no ball as the third and final session gets underway. Tea: Australia reach 174 for 4 leading by 239 runs with Shaun Marsh and Joe Burns at the crease. India have managed to pick up wickets, but Australia have put up a decent lead on the board. Stay tuned for the final session action. 40.3 overs: Out. Chris Rogers gets played on while playing a defensive shot to Ashwin. The ball takes the inside edge and then pads before crashing to the stumps. Australia 165 for 4.Rogers slams back-to-back boundaries off Ishant Sharma and both lovely driven through the ground. Rogers on 68 with Australia leading by 228 runs.Indian bowlers are bowling to a leg stump line, especially to Chris Rogers. But Dhoni also needs giving away easy runs, meanwhile R Ashwin introduced into the attack.Chris Rogers gets a lucky reprieve as the edge falls short of Dhoni behind the stumps. Replays showed that the ball bounced short of Dhoni. India going for the kill. Shaun Marsh joins Chris Rogers at the crease as Australia’s lead go past 200. 33.3 overs: Out. The plan of placing a leg slip has worked for Dhoni. The ball bowled on the pads by Umesh Yadav and Smith falls in the trap by playing to leg slip where Rahane dives to complete a low catch. 31.5 overs: Four. Another similar kind of delivery, which meets the same result. This time Smith places it to deep square leg. 31.4 overs: Four. Poor delivery from Umesh Yadav, short and down the leg. Steve Smith pulls it to a vacant fine leg boundary. 30 overs: Steve Smith has been sedate so far for his 15-ball three runs, but has the ability to accelerate once he gets his eye in. Australia 117 for 2.Dhoni and India should be looking for wickets and can’t afford to let Australia off the hook. However, the hosts would be looking to score quickly and put in India with a target. 27.4 overs: Four. Chris Rogers reaches to his fifty in style with a boundary to the sweeper cover. This was his fourth half-century in a row. Australia now lead by 178 runs. Chris Rogers gets two boundaries off Shami – one off the outside edge to the third man and second driven through the covers. Australia 108 for 2 and lead by 173 runs. advertisement24.1 overs: Out. Ishant Sharma strikes after the extended rain delay by getting Shane Watson caught behind for 17. Length ball from Ishant and Watson going for a defensive shot gets an edge to Dhoni behind the wickets.22.2 overs: Dropped. Dhawan drops Chris Rogers at second slip off Ishant Sharma’s bowling.Rain update: Hold on guys, not so soon for the start as rain comes back again but looks like a passing shower. The Indian bowlers are warming up on the sidelines under the watchful eyes of bowling coach Bharat Arun.Good news from Melbourne, rain seems to have stopped and also the covers are coming off. The rain had stopped briefly but once again light drizzle has started with the covers coming back.Now the drizzle has picked up to proper rain in Melbourne.There has been a delay to the start of post-lunch session as drizzle stops play with the covers on. Lunch: India were all out for 465 and then Australian openers gave their team a good start before David Warner fell for 40. At lunch Australia were 90 for 1 and leading by 155 runs with Chris Rogers (33*) and Shane Watson (15*) at the crease.Day 3 round-up: Australia’s Nathan Lyon and Ryan Harris each claimed twovital late wickets to leave India on 462 for 8 at stumps on day three of the third Test, after Virat Kohli and Ajinkya Rahane shared a 262-runpartnership.India trailed Australia’sfirst-innings 530 by 68 runs after starting the day on 103 for 1. Kohliand Rahane made the most of a placed pitch at the Melbourne CricketGround to put together a fluent partnership that looked like turning the Test in India’s favour. They brought up India’s first fourth-wicketcentury partnership at the MCG off 138 balls and went on to build theIndia’s highest partnership outside Asia in 10 years.Lyon (2 for 108) ended the long partnership when he trapped Rahane lbwattempting a sweep on 147. The offspinner then dismissed Lokesh Rahul,caught at deep backward square off a top-edged sweep, dismissing him ondebut for 3. Rahul’s wicket came much to the relief of substitute fieldPeter Siddle, who dropped Rahul at midwicket two balls earlier.
South Africa makes sense to the Indian traveller and India makes sense to him. That’s what legendary South African crickter Jonathan Neil “Jonty” Rhodes has told me once. Author of the book My Travel Escapades in South Africa, he drives home his point by citing surveys that reveal how the number of Indian tourists in his country has shot up. “Indians are increasingly putting the Rainbow Nation in their holiday itinerary,” he justifies. And why not? After all, as the brand ambassador of South Africa Tourism Board, he is doing a thorough job of telling the world how good his country is. “From the country’s magnificent wildlife, iconic beaches, adrenaline pumping adventure activities, to its world-class cities, shopping, nightlife, food and wine, my country has it all. Be it Cape Town or vibrant Johannesburg, there’s something for everybody,” he says, adding that the greatest thing is the ease of travel. “In Mumbai, if I am driving for three hours, I am still in the city. In South Africa, I can go from coast to mountains in three hours. It is a country with first world infrastructure,” says the fielding coach of Mumbai Indians. Adventure anyone? South Africa has ample. Rhodes admits that he is not a big city guy – he is from Pietermaritzburg, a laid back small town, where his parents still live. Yes, it’s the same town where Gandhi was thrown off from a train for boarding a first class compartment. So, big cities like Johannesburg do not fascinate him at all. “Rather I like Cape Town where I live for its nice and relaxed atmosphere. One of my favourite ways to enjoy my country is to stay in a luxury tent in a game reserve. The lovely Table Mountain region and the Kruger Park area are also my favourites,” he says. advertisementSouth Africa is best seen by road. But Rhodes tells you to skip the bus. “Hire a car and enjoy the great scenery at your own pace. I highly recommend the route from Cape Town to Port Elizabeth that entails a drive of a thousand kilometre,” he says. Also in South Africa, unlike in Europe, people don’t mind talking loudly. “I say this because Indians come in large groups and are a chatty lot. Shout out and make noise and nobody will mind. It’s a tradition to talk aloud in South Africa. If you speak too softly, people might think you are bad-mouthing them,” he explains. However, he warns that there is crime in some parts of South Africa. So “don’t wander into areas that your hotel concierge warns you about”. South Africa by Segway is cool too. Over the years, Rhodes has realised that it’s very important to travel with a sensitive companion. In all his travels, he has been accompanied by his wife Melanie. “I always get a new perspective when I travel with her. She is a passionate traveller with a good eye for spotting things. She makes me see things that I often fail to see,” he says. He has another word of advice: “Never be a slave to the camera. If you are going click, click, click, the moment you arrive at a place, you lose out on the essence of the place. Be aware of the surroundings first.” When Rhodes was playing active cricket (between 1992 and 2003), he never had a chance to ‘do’ the place he visited. It was always the airport-hotel-stadium routine. But now he has the time and has been to several countries. “New Zealand is one of the countries I really loved for its beautiful landscapes and many adventure sports – I have done sky diving and bungee jumping there. But the one country I would really like to visit is China. I am very keen to know its people and culture.” Rhodes hopes to see you in SA As for India, he has been here a hundred times. With Melanie, he has ‘house-boated’ in Kerala and snowboarded in Gulmarg. And he has even named his daughter India. Sure he is the right person to provide some advice to first timers in India. “Well, don’t get scared by its food. Try the sweet and syrupy gulab jamuns particularly. And yes, don’t be perturbed by the fact that it has a billion people. And if you are adventurous, ride a Royal Enfield to Ladakh,” he signs off.