Deputy Pearse Doherty has reacted angrily to the latest remarks from Health Minister Simon Harris in which he again failed to provide any new assurances that a second permanent Breast Surgeon will be appointed to Letterkenny University Hospital.Responding to a recent Dáil Question tabled by Deputy Doherty in which the Minister was asked to outline the progress being the much-needed consultant post for the hospital, Minister Harris would only confirm that the requirements of the Symptomatic Breast clinic continue to be assessed, before reaffirming that a second surgeon remains assigned to LUH but only on a locum basis.Criticising the Minister’s reply, Deputy Doherty said for years now campaigners and patient advocacy groups have worked tirelessly to lobby for the appointment of a badly needed second permanent breast surgeon as part of cancer services here at Letterkenny Hospital. “Then before the last General Election Minister Joe McHugh announced, to much fanfare, that a second breast surgeon had finally been secured for the hospital, a statement which proceeded months of stalemate before it was finally confirmed that a locum consultant would finally take up the position in July 2017 before assurances were given that a permanent appointment would follow.“Then shockingly it was confirmed to Sinn Féin almost exactly a year ago today that the hospital had still not received formal approval for a permanent second consultant breast surgeon.“Twelve months on from that bombshell and we are still no further forward, in fact, this reply which I’ve now received from the Minister merely states that a locum consultant remains employed at the hospital on a temporary payroll basis.”He added that in responding to his Dáil Question on the status of efforts to secure a permanent position for the Breast Clinic at LUH, Minister Harris offered no fresh hope that a permanent consultant would be recruited. “Instead, the Minister could only reaffirm that the requirements of the clinic continue to be assessed with a view to ensuring that arrangements are in place to meet the present and future needs of the service.“Time and time again patients, staff, and campaigners have been let down and they have been given false hope from Government Ministers, including Minister Joe McHugh, that this issue would be resolved.“When will the Minister come clean and tell the people of Donegal the truth about what is really happening with the post?“I pledge to continue to work closely alongside all stakeholders, including local patient groups, to keep the needs of the service at the top of the agenda because this situation and uncertainty surrounding this post cannot be allowed to continue indefinitely.”No fresh hope over second permanent breast surgeon for hospital – Doherty was last modified: February 4th, 2019 by StephenShare this:Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window)Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window)Click to share on Pocket (Opens in new window)Click to share on Telegram (Opens in new window)Click to share on WhatsApp (Opens in new window)Click to share on Skype (Opens in new window)Click to print (Opens in new window) Tags:hospitalPearse DohertySinn Fein
Here’s a Figma table mockup that you can use for learning purposes — let the creativity begin! HomeWeb DesignCreating Tables In Figma I added tables in the mockup file that were made in a few different ways:Using this tutorial (separate components for cells’ styles);Using the cell component (components for borders, background, and content);Using the cell component that unites everything (with only content components in addition).Try to play around and change the cell’s styles.Changing the state of the row. (Large preview)ConclusionIf you’re using the same components library in several projects and you’ve got a reasonable number of tables in each of them, you can create a local copy of components (cells components with stroke styles and, if needed, cells components with different states), customize them, and use them in the project. The cell content can be set based on local components.Also, if you’re using the table for one large project with different kinds of tables, all the above-mentioned components are easily scaled. The table components can be improved to infinity and beyond, like creating the cell states when hovering and other kinds of interactions.Questions, feedback, thoughts? Leave a comment below, and I’ll do my best to help you!Figma Table Mockup DownloadAs promised, I created a complete version of the Figma table mockup that you’re welcome to use for learning purposes or anything else you like. Enjoy! Content components can be created gradually: start with the basic ones like text components and add new ones as the project grows in size.The reason we want the content to be in components is the same as with other elements — it saves uptime. To change the cell’s content, we just need to switch it in the component.Editing the table using cells components (Large preview)Creating A Cell ComponentWe created all the atoms we need: background, border, content. It’s time to create a cell component, i.e. the molecule made from atoms. Let’s gather all the components in a cell. The top row is for the cells on top and in the middle of the table. The bottom row is only for the cells at the bottom. This way we’ll be able to put the cells one after another with no gaps and keep the same stroke width.A few examples: If the table design considers the absence of vertical borders, cells 2 and 6 would be enough. (Large preview) Creating Tables In Figma The cell component (the ‘molecule’) (Large preview) The Background Component (the ‘atom’) (Large preview) A border component with 1px stroke (Large preview) The cells’ states (hover and selected) (Large preview) (mb, yk, il) Posted on 25th September 2019Web Design FacebookshareTwittertweetGoogle+share Creating Tables In FigmaSasha Belichenko 2019-09-25T12:30:59+02:00 2019-09-25T12:35:34+00:00 If your project has several styles for table borders (a few border examples shown below), you should create a separate component for each style. Simply create a new master component as we did before and customize it the way you need. Set the background component as the bottom layer and stretch it to the whole cell size (set constraints to “Left & Right” and “Top & Bottom”).Add the border component with the same constraints as the background component.Now to the most complicated part — the content content.The cell has paddings, so you need to make a frame with the component’s content. That frame should be stretched to the whole cell size except for the paddings. The content component should also be stretched to the whole frame size. The content itself needs to be deprived of any margins, so all paddings will be set by the cell.At the end of the day, cell paddings are the only property in a component that we will set only once without an opportunity to change it later. In the example above, I made it 4px for all sides.Note: As a fix, you can create columns with empty cells (with no content and width of 16px for example) left and right to the column where extra margin is needed. Or if your table’s design allows, you can add horizontal paddings inside the cell component. For example, cells in Google Material Design have 16px paddings by default.Don’t forget to remove the “Clip content” option for the cell and frame (this can be done at the right-hand panel in the Properties section). The cell’s content can go out of its borders; for example, when a dropdown is inside your cell and you want to show its state with a popup.Note: We’ll be using this cell style as the main one. Don’t worry if your table has additional styles — we’ll cover that in the Table States and Components, Not Overrides sections.Cell Options For A Standard TableThis step could be optional but if your table needs states then you can’t go without it. And even more so if there is more than one border style in the table.So let’s create additional cell components from which it’d be easier to build up a table. When working with a table, we will select the appropriate component depending on its position in the table (e.g. depending on the type of borders).In order to do that, let’s take our cell component and create eight more masters from it. We also need to disable the appropriate layers responsible for borders. The result should look like the image below. In this tutorial, we will talk about how tables can be created in Figma by using components and Atomic Design methodology. We will also take a look at the basic elements of the table layout and how components can be included in the component library so that they can become part of the design system you are using.To make it easy for you, I’ve prepared a mockup example that uses all of the components we need for this tutorial.To follow along, you will need to have at least some understanding of the basic Figma concepts, its interface, and how to work with Figma components. However, if you’re new to Figma and working with table data, I recommend watching the “Getting Started” video to help you better understand Figma end-to-end, as well as the article “How To Architect A Complex Web Table” that was published not too long ago here on Smashing Magazine.To simplify the scope of this tutorial, let’s assume that the colors, fonts, and effects already exist as styles in the Figma project you’re about to begin. In terms of Atomic Design, they are atoms. (To learn more, the folks at littleBits wrote a great article on the topic.)The target audience for this tutorial are designers (UX, UI) who have either already adopted Figma into their workflows or are planning to try Figma in their next design projects but aren’t sure how to get started.So, without further ado, let’s dig in!Quick Note: While writing this article, Figma introduced plugins. At the time of publishing, there weren’t any good ones for working with tables, but things might change fast. Who knows, maybe this article will actually help an aspiring Figma plugin developer to create a really neat Figma Tables plugin, or at least, I hope it will. 😉IntroductionImagine the table as an organism. The table cell is then a molecule which is comprised of individual atoms. In design terms, they’re cell properties.So, let’s start with the cell. It has three properties:BackgroundBorderContentNow we’ll take a closer look at each one of them.BackgroundThe background will be a separate component in Figma. The size doesn’t really matter since we can stretch the component as we need, but let’s begin with setting the size to 100×36 pixels.In this component, add a rectangle of the same size as the component itself. It will be the only object inside the component. We need to attach the rectangle’s borders to the component’s borders by using constraints (set constraints to “Left & Right” and “Top & Bottom” at the right panel in the Constraints section), so that the rectangle stretches automatically to the size of the component.If you’d like to see this in action, watch this tutorial on how the constraints work in Figma. Creating Tables In FigmaYou are here: Related postsInclusive Components: Book Reviews And Accessibility Resources13th December 2019Should Your Portfolio Site Be A PWA?12th December 2019Building A CSS Layout: Live Stream With Rachel Andrew10th December 2019Struggling To Get A Handle On Traffic Surges10th December 2019How To Design Profitable Sales Funnels On Mobile6th December 2019How To Build A Real-Time Multiplayer Virtual Reality Game (Part 2)5th December 2019 From our sponsors: Creating Tables In Figma Note: For each border style created above, it’d be good to add master components like the ones described earlier.So we have excluded the necessity of overriding cell’s instances (disabling the appropriate layers, to be precise). Instead of that, we use various components. Now if, for example, a column uses a different style from the default (the fill color or border), you can choose this column and simply change the relative component. And everything will be alright. On the opposite side, changing a border of each cell manually (disabling the appropriate borders) is a pain you don’t want to bother with.Now we are ready to create tables (in terms of Atomic Design — organisms) from the various cell components (molecules) we made.Customizing The TableChanging the row’s height in the whole table is relatively easy: highlight the table, change the element height (in this case, the cell’s height, H in the right-hand panel in the Properties section), and then change the vertical margin from the element to 0. That’s it: changing the line height took two clicks!Changing the row height for the whole table (Large preview)Changing the column width: highlight the column and change the width size. After moving the rest of the table close up, select the whole table by using the Tide Up option in the Alignment panel as well as the first item in the dropdown list under the rightmost icon.Changing the column width. (Large preview)Note: I wouldn’t recommend grouping rows and columns. If you change the column size extending the elements, you’ll get fractional values for width and height. If you don’t group them and snap to the pixel grid, the cell size will remain an integer number.The background color, stroke type, and content data can be changed in the appropriate component or in one of the eight cells master components (cells that had different stroke styles). The only parameter that can’t be changed right away is the cell margins, e.g. content paddings. The rest are easily customizable.Components, Not OverridesLooking at what we got in the end, it might seem like overkill. And it is if there is only one table in your project. In this case, you can simply create one cell component and leave the background and stroke components off. Simply include them in the cell component, create the table and do the necessary customization for each separate cell.But if components are included in a library that is used by a number of other files, here comes the most interesting stuff.Note: *I do not recommend changing the background color and stroke in components’ instances. Change them only in the master. By doing so, those instances with overrides won’t get updated. This means you would have to do that manually and that’s what we’re trying to avoid. So let’s stick to the master components.*If we need to create an additional type of table cells (e.g. the table header), we add the necessary set of master components for cells with the appropriate styles (just like we did above with the eight cells that had different stroke styles), and use it. Yes, it takes longer than overriding components’ instances but this way you will avoid the case when changing the masters will apply those changes to all layouts.Table StatesLet’s talk about the states of the table’s elements. A cell can have three states: default, hover, and selected. Same for columns and rows.If your project is relatively small, all states can be set by overrides inside instances of your table components. But if it’s a big one, and you’d want to be able to change the look of the states in the future, you’ll have to create separate components for everything.You’ll need to add all eight cells with different stroke variants for each of the states (maybe less, depends on the stroke style). And yes, we’ll need separate components for the background color and the stroke for the states as well.In the end, it’ll look similar to this: If each cell in the table has a border, we’d only need cells 1, 4, 5 and 8. (Large preview) Here’s where a bit of trouble comes in. Unfortunately, if we do everything as described above (when changing the component’s state from one to another), there is a risk of losing the cell’s content. We’ll have to update it apart from the case when the content type is the same as in the master cell. At this point, we can’t do anything about it. The fill color of the rectangle will determine the background color of the cell. Let’s pick the white color for it. I recommend choosing that color from the color styles that are configured at the beginning of the project.Changing the background color (Large preview)BorderThis one is a bit trickier than the background. You can’t just create one rectangle with a stroke. We may need different kinds of borders: one for the separate cells (with borders around), one for the whole row of cells with only top and bottom borders, or one for the table header that we might want to separate from the rest with a wider line. There are many options.Border properties:Border line (left, right, top, bottom, or absence of any of them)Line widthLine colorLine styleEach line within the cell border might havea different width, color, and style. For example, the left one could be a continuous red line, and the top one a dotted grey line.Let’s create a component with a size of 100×36 pixels (the same as we did before). Inside the component, we need to add 4 lines for each border. Now pay attention to how we are going to do this.Add a line for the bottom border with the length of the component width;Set its position to the bottom border and constraints to stretch horizontally and stick to the bottom border;For the top border, duplicate the line for the bottom border, rotate it by 180 degrees and stick to the top of the component. (Don’t forget to change its constraints to stick to the top and stretch horizontally.);Next, for the left border, simply rotate by -90 degrees and set its position and constraints to be at the left side sticking to the left border and stretching vertically;Last but not least, you can create the right border by rotating it by 90 degrees and setting its position and constraints. Set stroke color and stroke width for each line to gray (select from the color styles) and 1 pixel respectively.Note: You may be asking yourself why we rotated the line for the bottom border. Well, when you change the stroke width for a line in Figma, it will rise. So we had to set this “rise” direction to the center of the component. Changing the line’s stroke width (in our case it is the border size) won’t expand outside the component (cell).Now we can hide or customize the styles separately for every border in the cell. Examples of cell content in components. This is not a complete list; you can use most of the components of your design system inside a table. (Large preview) The separate stroke component will save up lots of your time and add scalability. If you change the stroke color inside the master component, the whole table will adjust. Same as with the background color above, each individual cell can have its own stroke parameters.Changing border’s width and color (Large preview)ContentThis is the most complex component of all.We need to create all possible variations of the table content in the project: plain text, a text with an icon (left or right, different alignment), checkboxes, switches, and any other content that a cell may possibly contain. To simplify this tutorial, please check the components in the mockup file. How to create and organize components in Figma is a topic for another article.However, there are a few requirements for content components:Components should stretch easily both vertically and horizontally to fit inside a cell;The minimum size of the component should be less than the default cell size (especially height, keep in mind possible cell paddings);Avoid any margins, so the components can align properly inside a cell;Avoid unnecessary backgrounds because a cell itself has it already. If there are merged cells or border absence, we must apply the rest 2 and 3 cells as well as 6 and 7 to the bottom row. (Large preview) The cell options we need to build a table. Note that there could be a few extra depending on your table borders styles. (Large preview) A few extra examples of border styles. Note that the white background is not included in the component. (Large preview) Related Reading“Atomic Design,” Brad Frost“How To Architect A Complex Web Table,” Slava Shestopalov, Smashing Magazine“Creating Atomic Components In Figma,” Design & Engineering team, littleBits“Figma Tables: Data Grid Design By A Single Cell-Component,” Roman Kamushken, SetproductUseful ResourcesFigma YouTube ChannelThe official Figma channel on YouTube — it’s the first thing to watch if you are new to Figma.Google Sheets SyncA Figma plugin that helps you get data from Google Sheets into your Figma file. This should work fine with the techniques from this tutoria, but you’ll need to invest some time into renaming all the text layers for this to work properly. Table with various rows’ states. (Large preview)
US Office of Personnel Management (OPM) recently announced a massive data breach, containing very personal and private data of government and military personnel. The stolen data was originally gathered to process security clearances and contains a plethora of background information, including criminal records, mental conditions, drug usage, veteran status, birthdates, social security numbers, pay histories and pension figures, insurance data, financial records, home addresses, contacts, and other profile data. Millions of records in total were stolen, for current and previous government workers, contractors, and partners. Investigators concluded the attack was conducted by another nation state. This leads to the question of why would another nation launch such an attack and how will they use such personal information to their advantage? The answers might be shocking.Unlike cybercriminals, who would be interested in opening lines of credit, filing fictions tax refunds, creating false identities, siphoning financial assets, and fraudulently charging on accounts, nation states have different motivations which drive their actions. Nation states are interested in influencing policies in their favor across the globe, boosting national economic strength, military power projection, enhancing intelligence gathering capabilities, and protecting themselves from foreign attempts to do the same against them.For centuries, one of the best ways to accomplish these goals has been by influencing, manipulating, or outright controlling important people in other countries. Employing tactics to achieve such lofty goals requires two things. First, key foreigners with the necessary power or access must be identified. Secondly, the means to best influence them must be determined. History has shown that with both pieces to the puzzle, governments can maneuver in advantageous ways to achieve nothing short of world change. Many nations have elaborate infrastructures and organizations dedicated to these goals. They use a variety of Open Source Intelligence (OSINT), Human Intelligence (HUMINT), and Cyber Intelligence (CYBINT) methods to gather insights and data. Nowadays, OSINT is very effective and with the meteoric rise in social media sharing and personal applications, has become a highly productive tool at providing personal details of a populace. However, the deepest secrets and most private information is still difficult to come by. CYBINT can fill the gaps and provide the hard to come by intelligence and personal connections which are highly valuable for these campaigns. Profile IntelligenceWith the wealth of personal data fleeced from OPM, an attacker can begin building a database of interlocking profiles. The result is a network showing people, connections, access, knowledge, and spheres of influence. This information will be blended with any other high confidence data, garnered from other sources, to paint a better picture of individuals who may be of interest. They will likely be looking for those who are active in local and national politics, drive or enforce inter-agency government policies, leaders and technical advisors to the military, those who possess influence in the decisions of others, have internal access to valuable data, are part of the offensive/defensive intelligence apparatus, and people who have earned the trust of those in power.These people become targets of focus and opportunity for various types of influencing tactics, including bribery, blackmail, marketing, facilitation of revenge, social pressure, ethical conundrums, retribution of justice, and demonstrations of patriotism. Professional manipulators can be very creative in how to position and push people in certain directions.Methods of InfluenceThese profiles are also intended to give insights to how people can be motivated and controlled. Building a collective social picture can show how key individuals are influenced. It may highlight the respected close community around a target who offer advice and guidance. Past indiscretions can provide an understanding of how someone is vulnerable to situations involving drugs, money, sex, ideology, or fame. This can be exactly what is needed by manipulators. Personal and private information can be embarrassing or give the necessary signs of weakness. Some people can be blackmailed, threatened, tricked, cheated, bribed, or flipped to provide information, access, or facilitate the influence of others. A cascade effect can take place as people are linked. In rare cases, some assets may be groomed to become direct action operatives, where the risks, impacts, and rewards can be much higher. Achieving success is no easy task for nation state orchestrators. Private information is a highly prized chip in this game. The more sensitive, revealing, and humiliating the data, the more valuable it is to those who plan to use it as leverage for their benefit.Beyond the targeting of individuals, such data can be valuable in other ways. To disrupt the operational effectiveness of an organization, key personnel can be affected with campaigns to publicly embarrass or undermine renewals for top clearances therefore causing gaps or delays in the work of important positions. This can also provide advancement avenues for others who may be more conducive to support the attacker’s objectives.Compromising computer systems becomes much easier. In the cybersecurity realm, private information and a list of known contacts makes phishing attacks near impossible to defend against. Emails, texts, attachments, and files can appear to be sent from friends, family, coworkers, academia, and professional colleagues with no good way for the average person to discern the difference between legitimate and malicious, until it is too late. These phishing attacks can bypass system defenses and allow hackers to gain access to computers, networks, databases, and cloud environments. Follow-on attacks in this manner should be expected, both at home and work. Infecting and controlling devices of people with security clearances is an opportunity not likely passed-up by nation state attackers.The data itself has value and can be sold, traded, or given to a variety of other groups. Terrorists, allies, political rivals, in-country revolutionaries, radicals, or other nation state intelligence agencies would be likely interested parties. There are national economic advantages as well. Discretely providing profile data to state-owned companies can greatly improve their business negotiations, bidding, pricing, employee recruiting activities, and overall competiveness abroad. This can boost domestic economies while undermining foreign positions. Politically, in a bit of irony, such attacks may also drive the desire of attacked nations to establish international accords governing global cybersecurity practices with their attackers. In essence, hacking can motivate governments to come to the negotiation table and put them at a disadvantage in the agreement of terms. With the loss of millions of highly personal records, the outlook is not a pretty picture. Time will tell which of these tactics will be employed by those who took OPM data. But keep in mind such spycraft has been around for thousands of years. The intents and purposes are not new, just the scale, tactics, and tools have changed to include the information rich world of cyber. My heart goes out to those whose data was part of the recent breach, their families, friends, and associates. In a very personal way, they are all now part of a larger geopolitical game. Take all necessary precautions to protect your name, reputation, finances, history, and honor. Although the attack cannot be undone, governments around the world can learn from these situations and institute better controls, data policies, and political responses to protect future generations.
Serena Williams won her 19th Grand Slam title, continued her unbeaten run in six Australian Open finals and extended her decade-long domination of Maria Sharapova with a 6-3, 7-6 (5) win on Saturday night.After celebrating prematurely on her third match point, letting her racket go after serving what she thought was an ace but learning that it was a let, top-ranked Williams took a deep breath and fired another ace – her 15th of the set and 18th of the match – to seal it.This time, the celebration was real. She jumped around like a little child, bouncing up and down, before shaking hands with Sharapova at the net.”Growing up I wasn’t the richest but I had a rich family in spirit and support and you know standing here with 19 championships is something I never thought would happen,” Williams said. “I went on the courts with just a ball, and a racket and a hope, that’s all I had.”I’m so honored to be here tonight and to hold this 19th trophy @ my favorite stadium.”Williams, coughing frequently and still affected by a recent cold, controlled the first set around a rain delay in the sixth game, when the match was stopped for 13 minutes for the roof to be closed. Williams came back on court momentarily near the end of the break, but returned to the locker room with a hacking cough. She later said she had vomited before returning to Rod Laver Arena to continue.It didn’t show. She came back from the break and fired an ace to start a run of six straight points. She was broken while serving for the set but broke Sharapova for a third time to clinch it.advertisementThe 33-year-old Williams, the oldest winner of the Australian women’s title in the Open era, won the first six points of the second set and seemed on course for another lopsided victory before Sharapova hit back to set up a dramatic second set.Sharapova saved two match points, including one in the 10th game when she bravely hit a forehand winner down the line – applauded by Williams. She twice held serve to stay in the match.The No. 2-ranked Sharapova forced a tiebreaker and then took the first point off Williams when she leaped into a service return down the line. But Williams rallied again and relied on her serve to keep the points short, missing a second set point when Sharapova hit a winning service return. Williams didn’t relent, though, and secured the title that lifted her above Chris Evert and Martina Navratilova, who had 18 Grand Slam singles titles.Williams has now won 16 in a row and is 17-2 in career matches against five-time major winner Sharapova, who hasn’t won a head-to-head meeting since 2004.Two of Williams’ six Australian titles have come with straights-set wins in the final against Sharapova, the first in 2007. For 2008 champion Sharapova, it was a third loss in a final at Melbourne Park.”I haven’t beaten her in a long time but I love every time I step on the court with her,” said Sharapova, who had to save two match points in the second round. “I’ve had some of the best memories of my career on this court and also some of my toughest losses, but that’s the life of a tennis player.”
TagsTransfersAbout the authorCarlos VolcanoShare the loveHave your say Fiorentina swoop for Sevilla attacker Luis Murielby Carlos Volcano10 months agoSend to a friendShare the loveFiorentina have signed Sevilla attacker Luis Muriel.Milan had been touted as favourites to sign Muriel, but he has personally chosen to join the Viola.He joins Fiorentina on-loan to the end of the season. There is an option to make the deal permanent for €13m.Fiorentina will be Muriel’s fourth Italian club after previous spells at Lecce, Udinese and Sampdoria.
Chelsea manager Lampard announces Jorginho as vice-captainby Paul Vegas21 days agoSend to a friendShare the loveChelsea manager Frank Lampard has announced Jorginho is the club’s vice-captain.Last season Gary Cahill was selected as club captain whenever he was on the pitch by Maurizio Sarri, with Cesar Azpilicueta named as vice-captain – but the Spaniard has now become the club captain.Speaking ahead of the game against Southampton on Sunday, Lampard said: “Yes, Jorginho is vice-captain as it stands. [Azpilicueta] is the captain and that was clear at the start of the season and I think his professionalism and career here speaks for itself. “Jorginho, I keep talking about him, is a character and a driver. It is very evident to see on the pitch. That’s the situation as it stands.” While the 27-year-old is not fluent in English, he has been boosting his language skills in a bid to improve his standing as a leader. Lampard says he believes Jorginho is “a character and a driver” on and off the pitch.”It is obviously important, we always try here to push that along as soon as players come in because communication is key on and off the pitch,” Lampard said. “He crosses the borders as it is easy when you come in sometimes to stay within groups of nationalities. Jorginho doesn’t. He is a driver on and off the pitch.” About the authorPaul VegasShare the loveHave your say
A prehistoric, broken skull is revealing the secrets of ancient humans, divulging that early modern humans left Africa much earlier than previously thought, a new study finds. The skull, found in Eurasia and dating back 210,000 years, is the oldest modern human bone that anthropologists have discovered outside Africa, the researchers said. This skull, however, had an unusual neighbor: a 170,000-year-old, possibly Neanderthal skull that was found resting next to it, in a cave in southern Greece. Given that the Neanderthal skull is a solid 40,000 years younger than the modern human skull, it appears that this particular human’s early dispersal out of Africa failed. There are no living descendants of this enigmatic human alive today, and this person’s group was replaced by Neanderthals, who later lived in that very same cave, the researchers said. [Photos: See the Ancient Faces of a Man-Bun-Wearing Bloke and a Neanderthal Woman]Headbutting Tiny Worms Are Really, Really LoudThis rapid strike produces a loud ‘pop’ comparable to those made by snapping shrimps, one of the most intense biological sounds measured at sea.Your Recommended PlaylistVolume 0%Press shift question mark to access a list of keyboard shortcutsKeyboard Shortcutsplay/pauseincrease volumedecrease volumeseek forwardsseek backwardstoggle captionstoggle fullscreenmute/unmuteseek to %SPACE↑↓→←cfm0-9接下来播放Why Is It ‘Snowing’ Salt in the Dead Sea?01:53 facebook twitter 发邮件 reddit 链接https://www.livescience.com/65906-oldest-modern-human-skull-eurasia.html?jwsource=cl已复制直播00:0000:3500:35 “We know from the genetic evidence that all humans that are alive today outside of Africa can trace their ancestry to the major dispersal out of Africa that happened between 70[,000] and 50,000 years before present,” study lead researcher Katerina Harvati, a professor of paleoanthropology at the University of Tübingen in Germany, told reporters at a news conference. Other earlier modern-human dispersals out of Africa have been documented at sites in Israel, including one based on the discovery of a 194,000- to 177,000-year-old modern human jaw from Misliya Cave and others tied to early human fossils dated to about 130,000 to 90,000 years ago at the Skhul and Qafzeh caves. But “we think that these early migrants did not actually contribute to modern humans living outside of Africa today, but rather died out and were probably locally replaced by Neanderthals,” Harvati said. “We hypothesize this is a similar situation with the Apidima 1 [the newly dated modern human skull] population.” Discovery in Greece The two ancient skulls were unearthed in the late 1970s by researchers at the Museum of Anthropology at the University of Athens. Given that the skulls were found in Apidima Cave, the researchers named them Apidima 1 and Apidima 2. Both skulls, neither of which had a lower jaw, were found side by side in a block of breccia, angular pieces of rock that were cemented together over time. However, neither skull was in good shape; the damaged Apidima 1 included only the back of the skull, and at the time, researchers weren’t sure what species it came from. Apidima 2, which preserved the facial region of the skull, was identified as Neanderthal, but it was broken and distorted. For years, the skulls sat at the Museum of Anthropology in Athens until they were finally cleaned and prepared from the breccia block in the late 1990s and early 2000s. In the new study, Harvati and her colleagues put both skulls in a CT scanner, which generated 3D virtual reconstructions of each specimen. Then, they analyzed the features of each. As in previous analyses, the team concluded that Apidima 2, which had a thick, rounded brow ridge, was from an early Neanderthal. Identifying Apidima 1 was more challenging because of its fragmentary remains, but the researchers were able to create mirror images of its right and left sides, which gave them a more complete reconstruction. [In Photos: Oldest Homo Sapiens Fossils Ever Found] Several clues, such as the rounded back of the skull (a feature unique to modern humans), indicated that Apidima 1 was an early modern human, or Homo sapiens, the researchers said. Dating the skulls Next, the researchers dated the skulls. Previous analyses had estimated that the skulls were roughly from the same time period, given that they were discovered next to each other, suggesting that they lived around the same time. But by using a method known as uranium-series dating, the new team found that the skulls were not from the same time period. At 170,000 years old, the Neanderthal skull fit within the range of other Neanderthal remains found in other parts of Europe. But the modern human skull was an unexpected outlier, predating the next-oldest H. sapiens remains in Europe by more than 150,000 years, the researchers found. Uranium-series dating is one of only a few ways to date such ancient bones, “but it’s not without some pitfalls,” said Larry Edwards, regents professor in the Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences at the University of Minnesota, who was not involved in the study. In effect, the method works because uranium decays into thorium. The more thorium there is in a sample, the older it is, Edwards told Live Science. However, bones and teeth don’t contain much of their own uranium; rather, they absorb it from the environment over time. “That then requires you to make interpretations on how and when the uranium was picked up and whether or not the uranium was lost,” he said. But although this technique isn’t ideal for dating skulls such as Apidima 1 and 2, it can still provide useful data, Edwards said. “I think it’s pretty solid, their [dating] conclusions,” he said. Out-of-Africa implications Despite the skull’s title as the “oldest known modern human fossil in Eurasia,” the new finding does not rewrite the fundamentals of human evolution, said Eleanor Scerri, an associate professor and leader of the Pan-African Evolution research group at the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History in Jena, Germany, who was not involved in the study. Those fundamentals are that humans first evolved in Africa and then ventured out into the rest of the world. “The oldest human fossils still come from Africa and are about 100,000 years older than the Apidima fossil,” Scerri told Live Science in an email. “That is roughly 4,000 generations — ample opportunity to move around.” That said, “if we want to ask questions specifically about the early history of our species in Eurasia, then this study may confirm the arguments made for multiple, early dispersals,” Scerri said. In addition, this finding supports the view that the population of “early Homo sapiens was fragmented and dispersed,” she said. [Top 10 Mysteries of the First Humans] Previous studies have suggested that “Homo sapiens left Africa every time the Saharan and Arabian deserts shrunk, which happened broadly on 100,000-year cycles,” roughly agreeing with dates from this study, she noted. What’s more, if modern humans truly had reached Eurasia by at least 210,000 years ago, then “we can no longer assume that ‘Mousterian’ stone tool assemblages found across large regions of Eurasia are necessarily being produced by Neanderthals,” she said. There are many avenues open to researchers hoping to learn more about the Apidima skulls. For instance, the skulls could contain ancient DNA or primordial proteins that could verify their species, Eric Delson, who was not involved with the research, wrote in an accompanying perspective published online today (July 10) in the journal Nature. Delson is a professor and the chair of the Department of Anthropology at Lehman College and The Graduate Center at the City University of New York. Moreover, researchers could study the cave’s paleo-environment and climate to figure out what conditions were like when Apidima 1 and 2 lived there. Today, the cave is on a cliff facing the sea, reachable only by boat, Harvati said. The study was published online today in the journal Nature. In Photos: Bones from a Denisovan-Neanderthal Hybrid Photos: Looking for Extinct Humans in Ancient Cave Mud Originally published on Live Science.by Taboolaby TaboolaSponsored LinksSponsored LinksPromoted LinksPromoted LinksYou May LikeVikings: Free Online GamePlay this for 1 min and see why everyone is addicted!Vikings: Free Online GameUndoTruthFinder People Search SubscriptionOne Thing All Liars Have in Common, Brace YourselfTruthFinder People Search SubscriptionUndoKelley Blue Book2019 Lexus Vehicles Worth Buying for Their Resale ValueKelley Blue BookUndoGundry MD Total Restore SupplementU.S. Cardiologist: It’s Like a Pressure Wash for Your InsidesGundry MD Total Restore SupplementUndoLivestlyThe List Of Dog Breeds To Avoid At All CostsLivestlyUndoBirch Gold GroupThis IRS Tax Law is Sweeping the U.S.Birch Gold GroupUndo Photos: Newfound Ancient Human Relative Discovered in Philippines This is the oldest known modern human skull in Eurasia, dating to about 210,000 years ago. Here, you can see the partial skull (right), its virtual reconstruction (middle) and a virtual side view. Credit: Copyright Katerina Harvati/Eberhard Karls University of Tübingen
COMMENT courts and legal SHARE SHARE EMAIL COMMENTS The Supreme Court Tuesday referred to a 5-judge Constitution bench a plea seeking collegium-like selection process for appointing the Chief Election Commissioner (CEC) and Election Commissioners (ECs).A bench comprising Chief Justice Ranjan Gogoi and S K Kaul considered submissions raised by lawyer Prashant Bhushan and said the issue of appointment of CEC and ECs has to be taken up by a larger constitution bench.The bench was hearing a PIL filed by one Anoop Baranwal, seeking a transparent selection process for appointment of Election Commissioners in the poll panel. The Centre, represented by Attorney General K K Venugopal, however, opposed the petition saying so far no case of abuse of official position by the CEC had come forward and referred to names like T N Seshan and other persons who have graced the office of the CEC. SHARE elections Published on October 23, 2018
RELATED SHARE COMMENT December 25, 2018 Prime Minister Narendra Modi addresses a public meeting after inaugurating the Bogibeel Bridge, the longest rail-cum-road bridge on Brahmaputra river, in Dibrugarh, Tuesday, December 25, 2018. – PBI photo via PTI Published on COMMENTS PM inaugurates India’s longest rail-cum-road bridge in Assam SHARE SHARE EMAIL Prime Minister Narendra Modi on Tuesday said his government has changed the “dilly-dallying” work culture regarding the implementation of development projects.Addressing a rally here after inaugurating the country’s longest rail-and-road bridge, at Bogibeel in Assam, he said completion of projects within a given time frame is no longer confined to paper but has become a reality.“We have changed the earlier ‘latkane bhatkane’ (dilly-dallying) work culture…Completion of projects within a time frame is no longer confined to paper but has become a truth in the real sense,” he said in a apparent dig at the previous Congress-led UPA government.If former prime minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee had a second term, Bogibeel Bridge would have been ready by 2008-09. After his government, no attention was paid to the project till 2014, the Prime Minister said.Asserting that the Bogibeel bridge will strengthen the country’s defence prowess with movement of vehicles and trains, he said, it is not only a bridge, it is a lifeline for crores of people in Assam and Arunachal Pradesh.The bridge will cut down rail distance (between Dibrugarh in Assam to Naharlagun in Arunachal Pradesh) to below 200 km from 700 km now, Modi said. After inaugurating the bridge, the Prime Minister flagged off the Tinsukia-Naharlagun Intercity Express, which will run five days a week and use the 4.9-km bridge to cut down the train-travel time between Tinsukia in Assam to Naharlagun town of Arunachal Pradesh by more than 10 hours.Itanagar, the capital of Arunachal Pradesh is just over 15 km from Naharlagun.