The norm of equality has become the mantra of the age. But in Guyana it has become a very complex issue, which has to be demarcated very carefully so that it can be inculcated and achieved. Even in economic terms, as Thomas Piketty has shown, most of the world has moved further away from this goal, and we must ask ourselves why. There are numerous reasons for this condition, but one important one is that “equality” is one of those laudatory words which are constantly invoked, even though its users are not clear as to what it means.Now, almost everyone will agree with the statement: we are all equally human, but what does that mean? Isn’t it a tautology? We are not equally tall, strong, intelligent or beautiful; so whither equality? For the term to have any content, we have to choose any area of endeavour or personal attribute or treatment, and then discuss whether or not we are all equal in terms of the identified criteria. Two things or persons can be said to be equal only with some specific property that we have identified. Equality, from this perspective, has therefore to be contingent on the context or criteria wherein we speak: equality is a triadic relationship. We may talk about three types of equality – those pertaining to personal characteristics, to treatment, and to distribution. The last two categories are relevant to politics.There are some theories of equality that are purely formal; they specify no substantive content, simply a formula or policy. For example, when Aristotle stipulated that equals were to be treated equally and unequals unequally, there was no description as to what constituted “equals”. As such, once the rule was followed; for example, that only Greek men were “equal”, one could claim there was equality. Statements such as “equality before the law” also fall under this category: no questions arise as to what was the content of the law. Formal equality only demands consistency.It is generally accepted that, in any society, some inequalities will be morally permissible. Differences in ethnicity, interests, aptitudes, intelligence, and conception of the good are some that seem to have general approval. In Guyana, these are questions that have to be debated and agreed on. Normally, the rewards or punishment from one’s efforts (desserts) are also seen as permissible, even if not equally distributed. Once those that are not defensible have been identified, then the state/society has to decide what to do about them. Items identified from the latter category at some time or place have been political power, opportunity for scarce resources, welfare or social position, social position/class, economic resources, welfare etc. In general, some stress political equality, while others focus on economic equality: Conservatives and Libertarians balk at increased governmental intervention, while Socialists/Marxists/liberals expect the state to intervene to mitigate inequalities.In Guyana, questions of the equality of social status and political and economic parity are intensely contested between the ethnic groups in the society.As we indicated, we can only have substantive equality when there is a specific criterion identified by which policies can be assessed. For instance, in terms of “equal treatment” or opportunity, there can be formal equality if the law states that offices are open to anyone who is qualified.In this instance, one is being told that all existent inequalities of talent, birth or station etc. are morally permissible. Substantively, this may not have any effect on the concrete circumstances, since there is no stipulation that all applicants should have equal life chances. The question would be for society or the state to decide whether the still-surviving inequalities are, or are not, morally permissible. If the latter is decided on, then there may be affirmative action programmes or other compensating policies initiated.In Guyana, where there have been historically-determined structural conditions that undergird some inequalities, there may be the need for affirmative action programmes to rectify these imbalances.
Wednesday, U.S. Senators Todd Young (R-Ind.) and Joe Donnelly (D-Ind.) congratulated Matthew Foresy of Granger, Ind. and Connor Meyer of Munster, Ind. for being recognized as delegates of the United States Senate Youth Program (USSYP) during the 56thannual USSYP Washington Week.While in Washington D.C., Matthew and Connor joined other high schoolers from across the country to participate in week-long activities involving learning about the role and function of all branches of government. The two Hoosier students, who were selected by the Indiana Department of Education, will also receive a $10,000 college scholarship for their undergraduate studies to further their interests in public service. Matthew Forsey of Granger, Ind.is a senior at Penn High School and serves as the executive council leader of the Student Government. He is the president and founder of the Progressive Democrats Club, the president of the school’s Gender and Sexuality Alliance, and the representative to his district’s school board. Additionally, Matthew is the president and founder of NextGeneration PAC, has spent the summer as a page in the U.S. Senate, and attended the ACLU Summer Institute. He’s been a contributing author for the Huffington Post for a year, and he served as a field and communications intern for Lynn Coleman’s campaign for Congress. Senator Donnelly said, “Congratulations to Matthew Forsey of Granger and Connor Meyer of Munster for being selected to this year’s Senate Youth Program for their leadership and commitment to their communities. We are grateful to have these two young Hoosiers recognized both for their outstanding academic achievements and their interest in pursuing careers in public service.” “The United States Senate Youth Program offers valuable opportunities to students interested in public service across the country,” said Senator Young. “Indiana’s own Matthew and Connor demonstrate the hard work, selfless service, and leadership abilities needed in the next generation. I’m proud of these two dedicated and hard-working Hoosier students.” Connor Meyer of Munster, Ind. is a senior at Munster High School and serves as a member of the Student Government. He is the president of the Civics Club and captain of the Debate team. He placed top 30 in nation in debate in 2017. Conner is a DECA state champion and a member of Munster’s 2016 We the People team, which placed fifth in the Indiana State finals. He has been a field director and recruiter for an Indiana State legislative campaign, and looks forward to a career in public service.
In the study of clocks, complication refers to any feature beyond the simple display of hours, minutes, and seconds. The more complications in a watch, the more difficult it is to design, create, assemble and repair. A connoisseur’s collection grows with his taste in complications. Some great creations… Bvlgari: OctomaseratiBvlgari,In the study of clocks, complication refers to any feature beyond the simple display of hours, minutes, and seconds. The more complications in a watch, the more difficult it is to design, create, assemble and repair. A connoisseur’s collection grows with his taste in complications. Some great creations…Bvlgari: OctomaseratiBvlgari and Maserati’s unique collaboration creates a focus on graphic layouts providing time measurement information including a jumping hour, and four retrograde displays. This creation merges the expertise inherent in each of the two firms based on a broad range of shared references: precision, performance expertise, style and elegance.Case: 45mm steel.Complication: Central chronograph seconds hand.Omega: De Ville ChronographThe De Ville line has long been known not only for its elegant styling but for its introduction to the brand’s most important watchmaking innovations. The 1999 De Ville saw Omega launch its calibre 2500 equipped with a co-axial escapement, and it was in the De Ville Hour Vision annual calendar that the Si14 silicon balance spring made its debut. This new model’s co-axial calibre 9301 has an 18-carat gold rotor and balance bridge, a central chronograph seconds hand as well as gold diamond-polished central hour and minute hands. Its applied roman indexes are also crafted from gold, facetted on the sides and ends and fully diamond-polished.Case: 42mm; 18-carat red gold.Complication: Time zone function.Richard Mille: RM 037Created from skeletonised grade five titanium, the new piece sports a new stem-crown mechanism, patented by Richard Mille. The machine tooling process requires two days of adjustment separately for the bezel, the caseband, and the case back. The empty case requires more than 255 tooling operations and more than five hours of glazing and polishing in the final stage.Case: 52.20mm tall by 34.40mm wide.Complication: 50-hour power reserve.advertisementRolex: Perpetual Sky DwellerWith 14 patents, five of which are new, the watch provides, in an unprecedented and highly original way, the information global travellers need to easily keep track of time: a dual time zone, with local time read via centre hands and a reference time display in 24-hour format read via a rotating off-centre disc visible on the dial. It also equipped with a new calibre, the 9001, an officially certified Swiss chronometer entirely developed by Rolex.Case: 42mm oyster case.Complication: Dual time zone and 24-hour display.Cartier: Rotonde Annual CalendarElegance is the art of balance and the sum of an equation that connoisseurs of fine objects define as the golden number. Cartier has chosen to incorporate an annual calendar mechanism directly into the plate of the 1904 MC calibre. This refined movement incorporates a semi-instantaneous mechanism for converting the large date into two independent numerals. It also carries within it a simple and intelligent mechanism which makes it possible to display, without any possibility of error, the months having 30 or 31 days, once the current month has been set.Case: 45mm 18-carat pink gold.Complication: Annual calendar.IWC: Big Pilot Perpetual CalendarThe piece unites the clear-cut instrument look of the 1940s and IWC’s tradition of manufacturing Pilot’s watches with the wish to benefit from the technological advances of the 21st century. The elaborately equipped watch comes with a host of advanced features, including a perpetual calendar with its four-digit year display, moon phase display and seven-day power reserve. The tiny aircraft silhouette on the seconds hand also creates an eye-catching signal-red highlight on the monochrome dial.Case: 48mm.Complication: Perpetual calendar with four-digit year, moon phase.Longines: 180th Anniversary ChronographBased in Saint-Imier since 1832, the watchmaker is celebrating its 180th anniversary by presenting a reminder of the first chronographs closely based on the first wrist chronograph. The new model uses calibre L788, a column-wheel chronograph movement developed exclusively for Longines which enables the wearer to activate the various chronograph functions by simply pressing on the push-piece integrated into the crown. The sleek lines and the distinctive lugs provide these new models with a subtle balance between classical and contemporary design.Case: 39mm.Complication: Chronograph central seconds sweep.Ulysse Nardin: El ToroThe striking aesthetic of El Toro combines sapphire crystals and ceramic with a timeless dial design that inspired its powerful name. This high tech perpetual calendar with a dual time function adjusts forward and backward in seconds over the quick corrector position of a single crown. The oversized date, the day, the month and the year change instantly forward or backward when the hour hand is moved to a new local time across the dateline with pushers. The manufactured self-winding movement strives to be the most consumer friendly perpetual calendar ever produced.Case: 43mm, 18-carat rose gold, blue ceramic bezel.Complication: Perpetual calendar with dual time function.advertisementRoger Dubuis: La MonegasqueHonouring the spirit of Monte Carlo, its legendary history and world of glamour, La Monegasque is a line that demonstrates the company’s creativity. Here the breathtaking race of time seems suspended in all the refinement and beauty of the complication that is most associated with fine watchmaking: the flying tourbillon. A window opens onto a silvered disc with a brushed sunray effect is enhanced by the power-reserve indicator and the pink gold flying tourbillon. a rhodium-plated intermediate dial carries the white transferred markers outlined in black. Lastly, a brushed anthracite circle surrounds it, given depth with silvered snailing, black transfers and pink gold edge.Case: 44mm 18-carat pink gold.Complication: Flying tourbillon.Zenith: El Primero Chronomaster open grande date moon and sunphaseThe timepiece inspired by the captain line created in 1952, makes a clear allusion to historic timepieces with dauphine hands, facetted with rhodium-plating and hand set long markers. The manufactured movements, decorated with cotes de geneve and circular graining are visible through a sapphire case back. The model reproduces the various stages of the lunar cycle what had only been previously available in Zenith’s pocket watches. It is displayed in an aperture at 6 o’clock and the date is displayed at half past one.Case: 45mm; 18-carat rose gold.Complication: Integrated chronograph, moon and sun phases.Seiko: AnantaA sanskrit word that means ‘the infinite’ this watch was made to embody the most technologically advanced craftsmanship in the world.Case: 46mm sapphire crystal.Complication: Spring drive chronograph.De Grisogono: Otturatore Imagined by Fawaz Gruosi, the centrepiece of this unprecedented creation is a high-performance mobile sequencer.Case: 45mm wide and 50mm tall.Complication: On demand moon phase and date.Blancpain: Villeret Squelette 8 JoursThis entirely openworked and decorated movement is fully visible through the two sapphire crystals on the front and back.Case: 38mm white gold.Complication: Flying tourbillon.Van Cleef: Midnight Poetic wishThe exotic watch enables collectors, wherever they are in the world, to look at the exact position of the stars in the sky of Paris.Case: 43mm; 18-carat white gold.Complication: Paris sky star map.